Investigating Remote Driving over the LTE Network
|Title||Investigating Remote Driving over the LTE Network|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Liu, R, Kwak, D, Devarakonda, S, Bekris, K, Iftode, L|
|Conference Location||Oldenburg, Germany|
Remote driving, by bringing human operators with sophisticated perceptual and cognitive skills into the control loop over the network, solves challenging aspects of vehicle autonomy based on artificial intelligence (AI). This paper studies the human behaviors in the remote driving situation, i.e., how human remote drivers perform and assess their workload under the state-of-the-art network conditions. To explore this, we build a scaled remote driving prototype and conduct a controlled human study with varying network delays based on current commercial LTE network. Our study demonstrates that remote driving over LTE is not immediately feasible, primarily caused by the variability of the network delay instead of its magnitude. In addition, our findings also indicate that the negative effect of remote driving over LTE can be mitigated by a video frame arrangement strategy that trades off the magnitude of delay in order to achieve smoother display.